February 17, 2017


by Prof Mahir Khalifa-zadeh

azglobalcontext.org - Toronto-based Media and Analysis Center, Canada
azglobalcontext.org (Toronto, Canada)
created: February 17, 2017
updated: April 07, 2017 

Republic of Azerbaijan
Dawn of History

Paleolithic Period
Scientific research conducted by Azerbaijani and German scientists proved that primitive people appeared on the territory of Azerbaijan 2 million years ago (1). Archaeological excavations and anthropological studies confirm that the territory of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Period (350,000-10,000 Before Present, BP). Prof Mammadali Husseynov discovered human remains of the Paleolithic Period as well as some other early habitats artifacts in the Cave of Azykh (Khojavend in Karabakh, Azerbaijan) in 1968(2). The archaeological material of the Upper Paleolithic Period (40000 BC) was discovered in caves of Taghlar (Khojavend district)) and Dash Salakhly (Qazakh district) as well as in Aveidag, Damjily, Yatagery sites. Scientists believe that the stone carvings of Gobustan (60km from Baku) are the Stone Age Rock Art, dating back to 40,000 BP (3). The Gobustan caves' artifacts are dated to the last Ice Age and Upper Paleolithic (4).

The Neolithic Period (10000-3000 BC) artifacts were discovered in Leylatapa site (Garadagh district) (4). Many graves, artifacts and old settlements as well as Leylatapa’s cultures were found lengthwise of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline (5).

Bronze and Iron Ages (2200- 500 BC) the artifacts of Bronze and Middle Bronze Ages as well as the Iron Age were discovered in Nakhcivan and Karabakh. The Bronze Age’s several graves were found in Babaverdish site in Ganja-Gazakh region of the Republic of Azerbaijan as well as near the Garajamirli village in the Shamkir district (6). The Borsunlu burial mound (Goranboy district), Zayamchai necropolis (Shamkir district) as well as Tovuzchai necropolis were discovered in Tovuz district of Azerbaijan. Meanwhile, Hasansu necropolis was found in Agstafa district. Discovers occurred thanks to the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline.

Early State

The archeological studies confirm that several agricultural and stockbreeding settlements have existed in Azerbaijan since the 7th-6th millennium BC. The Caucasian tribes such as the Gargars, Utis, Saks, Sodes, Massagets, and others inhabited the territory of Azerbaijan, with Mannae emerging as the first state in the 10th Century BC (6,7).

8th Century BC – Northward expansion of the Kingdom of Mannae’s borders and absorption of the main part of Southern Azerbaijan (8, 9).

Ancient period

7th century BC – The Empire of Media with the capital at Ecbatana emerges in the area southwest of the Caspian Sea. Media was unified by a man named Deioces, the first of four kings who were to rule a true empire that included large parts of Iran and eastern Anatolia. King Cyaxares of Media (623-585BC) defeats the Assyrian Empire and captures the capital of Nineveh (10). The Medes (people of Media) defeat the Kingdom of Mannae. The Medes conquered the Kingdom of Urartu (present-day Armenia) and incorporated it into Median Empire (11). In the Assyrian raid, King Cyrus II of Persia (later Cyrus the Great) was a commander of the Persian unit in the Median Army under Cyrus uncle's command of King Cyaxares of Media (12).

6th century BC (550BC) – Cyrus the Great units the Iranian people of Medes and Persians and establish a new Empire under his Achaemenid dynasty. He extends his rule over his grandfather’s lands of Media (10).

Many scholars consider that the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, founder of Zoroastrianism) was born in the territory of present-day Azerbaijan or in the vicinity of Urmia Lake (South Azerbaijan, Iran) in the 6th century BC (13).

4th-3rd century BC –In some historical sources, Azerbaijan is referred as "Medes Minor" and/or "Atropatenian Medes" or "Medes-Atropatena". Darius III’s general Atropat (Greek: Atropates) becomes King of Media Minor (northern Media) (14). Some sources indicate the name of Atropat originates from Ataropad (Old Persian/Arsacid Pahlavi: Aturpat)– who was one of the sons of Zarathustra. According to one theory, the northern Media is named after Atropates as Media-Atropatene (in Greek) or just Atoorpatkan (Old Persian/Arsacid Pahlavi: Aturpatkan). In Old Persian “Atur” is derived from the Avestan language “Atar” meaning fire. “Pat” is derived from the Avestan “payu” meaning “guardian” or “protector”. According to Sassanian King Shapur I's (241-272 CE) inscriptions, “Aturpatakan” is named “Adurbadagan”. Later “Adurbadagan evolved to “Azarbaijan” when “Adur” evolved to “Azar” or “Azer” Azarbayjan or Azerbaijan (15). Another theory traces the etymology from the ancient Persian words "Āzar" (Persian: آذر‎‎), meaning Fire, and "Pāyegān" (Persian: پایگان‎‎) meaning Guardian/Protector (Āzar Pāyegān = "Guardians of Fire") (Persian: آذر پایگان‎‎), with Āzar Pāyegān was later corrupted into “Azerbaijan” under the dominance of Arabic and the circumstances thereby imposed by that language's lack of facility in pronouncing some non-Arabic words.

Atropates and Alexander the Great
Atropates (Atropat) fights in the battle of Gaugamela between Darius III and Alexander the Great (331 BC) as a commander of the left wing of the Persian Army. During the battle, Atropates’ units pushed Alexander’s army to stop an advance and implement defensive measures. Alexander was forced to deploy additional troops facing the units under the command of Atropates. Only after new troops were deployed, Macedonians were able to re-launch attacks against Atropates' flank. Alexander nominated Atropat as Satrap of Atropatena (Arsacid Pahlavi: Aturpatakan, Pahlavi: Adurbadagan), following his pattern of involving local nobility to the state administration in the countries he conquered. The other version says that Alexander reappointed Atropates to be a King of Media because of his bravery, command ability, and great respect among his Median soldiers that Alexander noticed in the Battle of Gaugamela.

Atropat (Arsacid Pahlav: Aturpat) allows his daughter to be married to Alexander's most important generals, Perdiccas (commander of Alexander’s cavalry). Atropat tried to save Zoroastrian tradition in his land, and he offered to Alexander one hundred Media’s female warriors (Amazons). According to Strabo the name of Atropatenian Medes derives from Alexander’s Satrap Atropates. “Midia is divided into two parts. One of them is called the Great Midia with its capital in Ecbatana… the second one is Atropatena Midia, which got its name from the commander Atropates. Indeed, King Atropat made this country independent on his own decision and succession to the throne was kept in his family… It is a great country as regards to its military power, because it can be represented by 10,000 horsemen and 40,000 infantrymen…”, Strabo reports (16). It is in Atropatena that Azerbaijani identity began to be shaped.

Rome, Parthia and Arran (Caucasian Albania)
4th –3rd century BC - The Kingdom of Caucasian Albania (Parthian: Ardan, Pahlavi: Arran, Latin: Albania) is founded in the northern part of Azerbaijan in the late 4th – early 3rd century BC with the royal capital of Kabalaka (current Gabala, Azerbaijan). The Kingdom is a close ally of Parthia. The territory of Arran (Caucasian Albania) covered most of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan including some areas in neighboring countries. It was a state with sufficiently developed agriculture, handicraft, and trade. Albania had its own coins and army.

1st century BC 1st Century AD- The Roman Army under General Pompey Magnus subjugates Armenia, Iberia and sizes Colchis (66-65BC). His army moves toward the Caspian Sea. Pompey forded the Alazan River and clashed with the forces of Oroezes (Orois), King of Albania. Finally, Pompey is defeated by the Parthians and Albanians in Caucasian Albania. Albanian army was able to have up to 60,000 foot soldiers and 22,000 horsemen (17).

Roman General Markus Crasus and wealthiest man of Rome, is defeated in 53 BC in the south of the Caspian Sea (18). Later in 36 BC, the Romans led by General Mark Antony is defeated by the Parthians and Albanians at the well-fortified Albanian capital Phraata (now Maragha, Iranian Azerbaijan) or (less possibly) at Ganzaka (Iranian Azerbaijan) (19).

75 CE– Roman Emperor Domitian sends Legio XII Fulminata to the allied kingdoms of Iberia and Albania. A rock inscription was found at the shores of the Caspian Sea in 1948 (Gobustan, 60-70 km from Baku, Azerbaijan) mentions the presence of a centurion of Legio XII Fulminata named Lucius Julius Maximus (20).

233 CE – Roman Emperor Severus Alexander’s army was defeated by Parthians and Arranians (Albanians) in Arran (Caucasus Albania) (21).

Christianity, Islam and Early Turks

1st- 2nd century– Christianity, brought over by the missions of St Eliseus and Nestor, reaches Caucasian Albania and spreads all over the country. The Church was established by the 1st-century missionary Saint Elisaeus, who proselytized throughout Arran (Caucasian Albania) and Persia. He establishes the first Christian temple in the Caucasus, in Kish (Sheki, Azerbaijan) (21, 22).  

In 313, King Urnayr declares Orthodox Christianity as an official religion of Caucasian Albania, predating King Mirian of Iberia’s declaration of Iberia as a Christian nation in 337 (23, 24).  Arran's  (Albanian) Dyophysite Orthodox church becomes a state institution. In 451 AD, Artsa'k, the mountainous part of Arran (Caucasus Albania), becomes the country's center of the anti-Sassanid resistance. Since 552 AD, Albanian Catholicos has been sitting in Partaw (now Barda, Azerbaijan), the capital of Caucasus Albania (Arran) (25). 

4th-5th century – Early Turks tribes starts to arrive and settle in the South Caucasus, particularly in Caucasus Albania.  Hun Turks come from the Don River to Azerbaijan in 395 and 398, respectively. The beginning of Turks’ linguistic and ethnic mixture with locals and Albanians started (26). In 466, the Aghaceri Turk tribes, belonging to the European Huns (the Oghuz), settles in Azerbaijan (27).

4th - Starting from the late Roman time (Byzantium), Nomadic Turkic tribes begin to penetrate into Arran and Northern Iran from the North Caucasus and later from Central Asia (28).

7th century – Albania under King of Varaz-Grigor and his son Prince and General (Pahlavi: Spahbed) Javanshir (Pahlavi: Juansher) resisted the Muslim Arabs (29). In 654, Javanshir sends a letter to Byzantine emperor Constantine II and asks the emperor to adopt Arran (Albania) under his patronymic. The Muslim Arabs' conquest resulted in the spread of Islam in Arran. This, subsequently, brings about the disintegration of the Kingdom and the entire region’s being assimilated into the Arabian Caliphate.

7th century - Islam becomes the major religion following the Arabs' advance into the Caucasus Albania.

6th-7th century - The Book of Dede Korkut which is the historic epic of the Oguz Turks is written in Azerbaijan (30).

Medieval and beginning of 18 Century

9th century – In 816, a popular Shiite liberation movement for independence from the Arabian Caliphate was launched under the leadership of Babek. Babek quickly seized power in Armenia, Esfahan, Mosul, and Hamedan (816-817). However, he was defeated and executed in 838 (31).

The Shirvanshahs state in Azerbaijan emerged in 861 and covered the area of Shirvan of present-day Azerbaijan and existed till 1539 (32).

10th - The Oguz adapts Islam. A new ethnic group of Azeri Turks emerges (33). The Oguz tribes’ Seljuk dynasty puts an end to the Arab control by invading Azerbaijan from Central Asia.

12th – 13th century – The emergence of the Atabek state in Azerbaijan under the Seljuk ruler Shams ad-din Ildeniz with a capital in Barda. In 1230s the Mongol Armies led by Genghis Khan conquered Azerbaijan (34).

14th century – The Mongol Armies of Tamerlane invaded Azerbaijan again. This is followed by the emergence of two successive Azerbaijani states: the Kara-Koyunlu and Ak-Koyunlu (1378-1469, Southern Azerbaijan) with a capital in Tebriz. Kara-Goyunly controls the areas of Southern Azerbaijan, Iraq, Fars and part of Eastern Iran.

15th century –When the city of Shemakha was abandoned as the capital of the state of Shirvanshahs (9th –16th centuries, Northern Azerbaijan) in favor of Baku, the Palace of Shirvanshahs was built in 1411 in the new capital.

1420 – 1436 - Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf rules the Kara Goyunlu and gains control over Armenia. 1467- Uzun Hassan of Turkic Ak Koyunlu defeates Kara Koyunlu’s Jahān Shāh (35). In 1468, the state of Kara-Koyunly disintegrated and a new state of Ak-Koyunly (1387-1502) with capital in Tebriz emerged under the rule of Turk of Uzun Hasan.

1468-1478- the reign of Uzun Hasan, the Emperor of Ak Koyunlu and Azerbaijan’s great statesman (36).

Shah Ismail Sefevid (Esmail Safavid)
16th –17th century – At the beginning of the 16th century Azerbaijan becomes a power base of another indigenous dynasty, the Safavids (Azeri Turk dynasty). The founder of the Safavid Dynasty, Shah Ismail I (1486-1524), declares Shi'a Islam as the state religion. He unites all Azerbaijani lands (Northern and Southern Azerbaijan) and creates a powerful Iranian empire with a capital in Tebriz. The state of Safavids stretches from Amur Darya River in the east to the Euphrates in the west and from the Darband fortress in Caucasia to the Persian Gulf in the south.

In 1504, Shah Ismail (Esmail) Sefevid ordered his general Revangulu Khan to build a fortress on the river of Zanghi (now renamed by Armenians into Razdan rver) bordering with the Ottomans.

In 1511, the fortress was built and named after Ismail's general Revangulu as Revan or Iravan (Erivan) qala (later dictator Stalin renamed into Yerevan, now the capital of Armenia) (37). 

In August 1514, Ismail’s army was defeated in the battle of Chaldiran by the Ottoman troops under Sultan Selim I. Between 1590 and 1639 wars over Azerbaijan were fought between the Ottoman and the Iranian Empires.

1736- A brilliant military commander Nadir Kuli-Khan Afshar (later Nadir Shah Afshar), a member of Turkic Afshar tribe settling in Azerbaijan since the 13 century, was crowned as Shah of Iran in Mugan (Azerbaijan). Nadir Shah was known as "The Second Alexander" or "The Napoleon of Persia".

Imperial Russia

18th –19th century – Emergence of Turkic Qajars state in Iran and Azerbaijan in 1781. The Turkic Qajars were origin from Ganja (present-day Azerbaijan). The Russo-Persian wars lead to the signing of the Gulistan (1813) and the Turkmenchay (1828) treaties between the Qajar and Russian Empires that split Azerbaijan into two parts (southern or Iranian Azerbaijan and northern or Russian/Soviet Azerbaijan that is the present-day independent Republic of Azerbaijan) along the Araz River. The Russian rule in Azerbaijan begins.

In accordance with the Treaty of Gulistan, Imperial Russia possesses Karabakh, Gandja, Sheki, Shirvan, Derbend, Kouba, and Baku, together with part of Talish and the fortress of Lenkoran (38).

22 June 1804- Iran's Crown Prince Abbas-Mirza Qajar, supreme commander of the Qajar Army, signs a capitulation of Iran's fortress Erivan (Azerbaijan's khanate) after a long siege launched by general Tsitsianov, Russian Imperial Army.

Under the Treaty of Turkmanchay, Iran ceded the Erivan Khanate (the present-day part of Armenia), the Nakhchivan Khanate (present-day Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan), the Talysh Khanate (southeastern Azerbaijan), and the Ordubad and Mughan regions (now also part of Azerbaijan) (39).

Finally, the Russian Empire conquered and incorporated the following Azerbaijani khanates - Erivan (later renamed by Russians into Yerevan, the present-day capital of Armenia), Karabakh, Nakhichevan, Ganja, Shemakha, Baku, Sheki, Guba, Derbend, Talysh, Salian and fortress Lenkoran.

In the late 1820s a massive resettlement of Armenians from the central parts of Iran as well as from the Middle East into Azerbaijani lands takes place under the Treaty of Turkmanchay (40).

March 21, 1828, the Russian Tsar issued and signed an Order that renamed Azerbaijani khanate of Erivan and some parts of Nakhchivan khanate into the Armenian oblast (province). Finally, Imperial Russia established the province of Armenia on Azerbaijani lands (41).

6 August 1832 - the birthdate of world-famous Azerbaijani lyrical poetess  Khurshid Banu Natavan. She was the daughter of Mehdigulu Khan, the last ruler of the Karabakh Khanate (1748–1822).

First Oil boom

1872 – Starting point of commercial oil production and the first Oil Boom in Baku (11 million tones are produced per annum; 50% of the world oil production). In 1879, the Nobel Brothers established their own company in Baku (some 12 percent of the Nobel Prize fund was drawn from Alfred's shares in the Nobel Brothers' Petroleum Company in Baku).

In 1883, the capital of the Rothchilds finances Baku-Batum railway which plays an important role in the export of oil from Baku to the European markets.

Independence, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR)

30-31 March – The massacre of about 20,000 Azerbaijanis in Baku is perpetrated by the Russian Red (Communist) Army and Armenian Dashnaks. 28 May - Azerbaijan declares independence and announces the creation of the Azerbaijani Democratic Republic (ADR) - the first secular and democratic state in the Muslim world. The first Cabinet of Ministers is formed under Prime Minister Fatali-khan Khoyski.

4 June – The Peace and Friendship Agreement is signed between the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and Turkey. Establishment of Turkish Military Mission in Ganja.

15 September – Baku is liberated from Dashnak Armenians and Shaumyan’s communist armed formations. Joint Azerbaijani and Turkish troops enter Baku. The capital of Azerbaijan is moved from Ganja to Baku.

7 December – The opening session of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. 18 December – General Thompson declares Britain’s support to the Azerbaijani Parliament as the only legitimate authority within the territory of the ADR.

8 January – Azerbaijan Democratic Republic’s official delegation participates at the Paris Peace Conference.

15 January –The Paris Peace Conference’s official decision on the recognition of Azerbaijan’s independence is presented to the Azerbaijani delegation in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France. 27 June – Azerbaijani (based on Latin Alphabet) is adopted as the state language.

In the face of the Bolsheviks’ military advance, Azerbaijan and Georgia signed the Azerbaijani–Georgian mutual defense pact in Tbilisi that established a military union on June 16, 1919 (42). November-December –Armenian Dashnaks perpetrate massacres of the Azerbaijani population in ADR’s Zangezur.

11 January 1920, The Paris Peace Conference recognizes de-facto the Azerbaijan Republic with the capital in Baku. The Conference issued a Special Resolution, which confirms Nagorno-Karabakh as an integral part of Azerbaijan (43). Under this document, the Allied Powers recognize Khosrov-bey Sultanov, appointed by the Government of Azerbaijan, as Zangezour’s and Karabakh’s Governor-General (44, 45).

20 March  1920 - Iran de-jure recognizes the independence of Azerbaijan (46).

27-28 April 1920 – 11th Red (Communist) Army invades Baku. The Soviet Government led by Nariman Narimanov was established in Azerbaijan.

1921 - Parts of the sovereign territory of Azerbaijan are transferred to Armenia by the Soviet Bolshevik Government. These include - Zangezur, Goyche, Daralayaz, and Sharur.

November 1921 - Azerbaijan's Soviet government transferred Zangezur to Armenia in November 1920 as a "symbol of friendship and brotherhood" (47, 48).

USSR and Black January of 1990

In 1922, Azerbaijan is incorporated into the Soviet Union as a part of the Transcaucasian Federation and subsequently, in 1936, it becomes a Union Soviet Socialist Republic. The Cyrillic alphabet is introduced in the country. Azerbaijan is one of the fifteen republics of the USSR until the country’s re-independence in 1991.

1988 – The beginning of ethnic cleansing against Azerbaijanis in Armenia results in the influx of refugees to Baku. The Soviet Authorities in Moscow stepped up measures to suppress the National Movement for Independence in Azerbaijan and secure Communist rule in the country.

20 January 1990 – Soviet military intervention. Up to 26,000 Soviet troops storm Baku. More than 130 civilians (Azerbaijanis, Russians, Jews, Ukrainians) were killed and 700 wounded.

Restoration of Azerbaijan’s independence and Armenia’s military aggression

31 August 1991 – Azerbaijani Parliament adopts the Declaration of Independence. The Parliamentary Act establishing State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan is passed on October 18, 1991.

June 1992 - President Ayaz Mutalibov flees Baku against the backdrop of increasing failure in internal policy and in Nagorno-Karabakh culminating in the Armenian massacres of Azerbaijani civilians in the town of Khojali on 26 February 1992 (613 were killed, 487 wounded and 1,275 civilians were taken hostage). The Popular Front of Azerbaijan seizes power and Abulfaz Elchibey becomes President. The CSCE (now the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, OSCE) set up the Minsk Group, a group of member states coalesced to facilitate a peaceful resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The three co-chairmen of the OSCE Minsk Group include representatives of France, Russia, and the United States.

June 1993 – One year of unsuccessful rule by the Popular Front reaches its climax. The Armenian aggression against Azerbaijan over the Azerbaijani region of Nagorno-Karabakh results in the occupation of Aghdam, Lachin, Kelbajar, Gubatly, Zangilan, Jebrail and Fizuli districts of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The number of Azerbaijani refugees and internally displaced persons reaches one million. Armed revolt against the Popular Front Government gains momentum. Amid the imminent threat of civil war Abulfaz Elchibey appeals to Heydar Aliyev (at the time a Leader of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan) to return to Baku and, using his rich political experience, address the dire situation and save the country from the outbreak of internecine hostilities. Elchibey flees Baku.

June 1993 - Heydar Aliyev returns to Baku and, through a number of skillful and courageous measures, manages to avert the confrontations. 15 June 1993- Heydar Aliyev becomes Chairman of the Azerbaijani Parliament.

In 1993, the United Nations Security Council adopted the four Resolutions (822, 853, 874 and 884) condemning the occupation of Azerbaijani territories and demanding unconditional withdrawal of Armenian Armed Forces.

3 October 1993 – Heydar Aliyev is elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

9-12 May 1994 - The cease-fire agreement between Azerbaijan and Armenia is signed.

20 September 1994 – Contract of the century is signed between Azerbaijan and Consortium of Major Oil Companies led by BP. 5-6 December 1994 - CSCE Budapest Summit. A decision on "Intensification of CSCE action concerning the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict" is adopted.

2–3 December 1996 - OSCE Lisbon Summit. The OSCE Chairman-in-Office makes a statement supported by all (53) OSCE member states except Armenia, on three principles for the settlement of the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

11 October 1998 - Heydar Aliyev is re-elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.  

17 April 1999 – Construction of Baku-Supsa oil pipeline is completed.

18 November 1999 - The Intergovernmental Agreement related to the construction of Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline is signed by the Presidents of the Turkish Republic, Republic of Azerbaijan and Georgia during the OSCE Summit in Istanbul.

25 January 2001- Azerbaijan becomes a member of the Council of Europe.

15 October 2003 – H.E. Ilham Aliyev is elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan's Great Victory

On 10 November 2020, Armenia signed the Agreement (Capitulation Act) to withdraw all Armenian Occupational forces from Azerbaijan. The Second Karabakh War finished ending the Armenian occupation of the 20% of Azerbaijan. 

On 23 September 2023, Azerbaijan launched an anti-terrorist operation and liberated the city of Khankendi (former Stepanakert) from the Armenian separatists. The separatist junta was annihilated by signing the self-liquidation document. 

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44- State Building and Conflict Resolution in the Caucasus, by Charlotte Mathilde Louise Hille,
Leiden [Netherlands] ; Boston : Brill, 2010, ISBN 9789004179011, pages 359, https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/8794869
45- Chorbajian and Hovannisian, The Republic of Armenia, Vol I, pages 152 and 192, https://www.amazon.com/Republic-Armenia-Vol-1918-1919-Eastern/dp/0520019849
46- Shabnam Yusifova, Azerbaijan-Iran Relations (1918-1920), 2-4 February 2015- Istanbul, Turkey Proceedings of INTCESS15- 2nd International Conference on Education and Social Sciences, http://www.ocerint.org/intcess15_e-publication/papers/352.pdf
47- The Armenian-Azerbaijani War, http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Armenian%E2%80%93Azerbaijani%20War/en-en/

48- Duncan, Walter Raymond; Holman (Jr.), G. Paul (1994). Ethnic nationalism and regional conflict: the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Westview Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-8133-8813-9. Retrieved 2012-01-23

1 comment:

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